Is St. George fighting a plesiosaur-inspired dragon in this 1678 illustration from Mundus Subterraneus? Abel (1939, also the source of this image) thought so, noting the shift towards plesiosaur-like proportions and anatomy compared to more conventional European dragon depictions of the time.
The giants and plesio-dragons of Mundus Subterraneus
Athanasius Kircher’s 1678 German textbook Mundus Subterraneus– an early thesis on geography, biology, mineralogy and geology – contains several illustrations of animals which may have been informed by fossils. They include many types of giant human, which were said to be social, cave-dwelling species based on the bones of large animals found in caves – almost certainly remnants of Pleistocene mammals. Kircher also wrote about several types of dragon, many of which were of period-typical, worm-like form, but Abel (1939) noted one unusual dragon illustration that may have been influenced by a real giant reptile: a plesiosaur.
The illustration is plesiosaur-like in many respects, with a barrel-like body, small head, long and slender neck, a true tail, and curiously small ‘paddle-like’ wings instead of broad, membranous wings typical of dragon depictions. It’s not a perfect plesiosaur depiction by any means – it also has ears, a beak, and four legs – but Abel (1939) considered this reinvention of dragon form so dramatic that it could represent the arrival of a new source of inspiration for dragon anatomy, of which plesiosaurs are a possible contender. Marine reptiles, including plesiosaurs, were almost certainly uncovered during quarrying work in the historic Swabia region (now southern Germany) as rocks we now call the Posidonia Shale were exploited to build growing settlements. The Posidonia Shale is a site of exceptional preservation with abundant invertebrate fossils and rarer, but often complete and articulated, marine reptile skeletons. Posidonia quarrying dates back to at least the 16th century and, given that the quarrying was executed by hand, 17th century quarrymen would have seen fossils of many kinds, almost certainly including some well preserved plesiosaur remains. Had these discoveries caused a stir among local learned individuals, as well a giant reptile entombed in stone might have, it’s not inconceivable to think they could have been identified as dragons, and ultimately influenced Mundus Subterraneus.
As with our discussion of cyclops art, these details are only circumstantial evidence and they do not prove beyond doubt that plesiosaurs were referenced in Kircher’s dragon art. But I find this case a little more compelling because our records of the early modern period are better, so the correlation between historic events is tighter and the contrast to other dragon illustrations more obvious. Moreover, whereas ancient cyclops art doesn’t really look like the fossils said to inspire it, I can see some obvious plesiosaur-like details in Kircher’s illustration. It’s difficult to be certain about the relevance of plesiosaurs fossils to the image but, for me, this is a possible, if unconfirmed, piece of proto-palaeoart.
Please read the rest of this wonderful piece by Mark Witton at Unicorns, dragons, monsters and giants: palaeoart before palaeontology.
Sweet! Extra sweet!
Especially as I have been enamored of a recent and quite scholarly thread on ATS called Evidence for the Co-Existence of Humans and Dinosaurs. If your interest is peaked you should have a read of that, too. It’s good! Up at 11 pages now and it’s got 108 flags. Just wonderful! You will see that the premise is exceptionally solid and you will know why, too.