Crossposted by u/SpaceInstructorlinkage

Cavern below?



Mars has hidden depths hinted at by intriguing pits scattered around the planet. Some of these tantalizing windows may be entrances to underground caverns. If humans ever make it to Mars, they may want to consider hunkering down underground to protect themselves from space radiation.

This image from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) in 2011 shows a hole on the slopes of the Pavonis Mons volcano. “Why there is a circular crater surrounding this hole remains a topic of speculation, as is the full extent of the underlying cavern,” NASA said in an image feature in 2020.

Source Article. I’ve teamed up with a few aerospace engineers friends on r/SpaceBrains to design a crowdsourced Mars colony. Check out our progress on discord and share your skills.

This photo is stunning and fires up the imagination to excellent levels. A favorite since it was new.


Posted by u/htmanelski, m o d

“Mysterious Light-Toned Deposit in Vinogradov Crater”

This image of Vinogradov (20.981°S, 323.137°E), a heavily eroded 220 km diameter crater in Margaritifer Terra, was taken by HiRISE on July 1st, 2014. You can see many strange light-toned blobs, some of which appear circular and probably outline small craters. Scientists think this could have formed from the ejecta of a nearby crater, but the details of its origins are still unknown.

The width of this image is about 1 km.

Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Geohack link:


Juno Flies Past the Moon Ganymede and Jupiter, With Music by Vangelis

Jul 14, 2021

On June 7, 2021, NASA’s Juno spacecraft flew closer to Jupiter’s ice-encrusted moon Ganymede than any spacecraft in more than two decades. Less than a day later, Juno made its 34th flyby of Jupiter. This animation provides a “starship captain” point of view of each flyby. For both worlds, JunoCam images were orthographically projected onto a digital sphere and used to create the flyby animation. Synthetic frames were added to provide views of approach and departure for both Ganymede and Jupiter.

Visit & to learn more.
Animation: Koji Kuramura, Gerald Eichstädt, Mike Stetson
Music: Vangelis
Producer: Scott J. Bolton
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS

Looks a lot more liquid than what we see in more rocky worlds.


Posted by u/azzkicker7283

Asteroid Juno Passing in front of M10

Needed something to shoot while waiting for the summer targets to rise, and I saw in stellarium that the ~250km asteroid Juno was going to pass in front of the M10 globular cluster. Each night had different seeing, clouds, and moon conditions, which is why the frames vary a bit in brightness and sharpness (also had a couple satellites fly through causing the streaks). Also photographed M10 in color back in 2019. Captured on June 16, 17, and 18th, 2021 from a Bortle 6 zone.

Places where I host my other images:

Instagram | Flickr


  • TPO 6″ F/4 Imaging Newtonian

  • Orion Sirius EQ-G

  • ZWO ASI1600MM-Pro

  • Skywatcher Quattro Coma Corrector

  • ZWO EFW 8×1.25″/31mm

  • Astronomik LRGB+CLS Filters- 31mm

  • Astrodon 31mm Ha 5nm, Oiii 3nm, Sii 5nm

  • Agena 50mm Deluxe Straight-Through Guide Scope

  • ZWO ASI-120MC for guiding

  • Moonlite Autofocuser

Acquisition: 2 hours 12 minutes (Camera at Unity Gain, -15°C)

  • Lum – 22×120″ per night

Calibration frames:

  • Darks- 30

  • Flats- 30 per filter

Capture Software:

  • Captured using N.I.N.A. and PHD2 for guiding and dithering.

PixInsight Processing: (processes batch applied via image containers)

  • BatchPreProcessing

  • StarAlignment

  • DynamicCrop

  • AutomaticBackgroundExtraction

  • Blink to stretch nonlinear

  • Annotation to add date and watermark

  • BatchFormatConversion .xisf to .png

  • PIPP to make final gif


Posted by u/htmanelski, m o d

“South Polar Cap, Summer 2000”

This image of the Martian south pole (83.9°S 160.0°E) was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft on April 17th, 2000. It was southern summer and the south pole was now at its smallest extent. In southern winter the south pole would easily fill the entire width of this image, but in summer it shrinks to only about 420 km across.


Geohack link:


IC 2944 Nebula

Posted by u/mrdeepsky01

We captured IC 2944 Nebula for 50hrs and it delivered interesting results! (OC)

IC 2944, also known as the Running Chicken Nebula or the λ Centauri Nebula, is an open cluster with an associated emission nebula found in the constellation Centaurus, near the star λ Centauri. It features Bok globules, which are frequently a site of active star formation. However, no evidence for star formation has been found in any of the globules in IC 2944
Image Credit Copyright : Utkarsh Mishra and Franck Jobard
12.5″ f/9 Quasar Ritchey Chretien
Losmandy Titan
Ha: 80×600″
Lum: 43×600″
OIII: 73×600″
RGB: 99×600″
Total exposure: 49h 10’Pixinsight and Photoshop

Oh, wow!

And oh, wow, a 12.5″ Quasar! My dream scope!


Photo by mustalainen

Solarmax 90mm, ZWO174, 1000 frames top 50%, Autostakker, IMPPG, photoshop, colors inverted



HiPOD 24 Jun 2021: Ejecta to the Southwest of Hargraves Crater

In this richly textured image, our goal is to look for stratigraphic relationships, melt-rich ejecta, and fragmental ejecta breccia (rock composed of sharp fragments). In Context Camera images and night/day infrared, the contrast suggests the presence of impact melt-rich deposits and bedrock.

Black and white is less than 5 km across; enhanced color is less than 1 km.

ID: ESP_063875_2000 date: 12 March 2020 altitude: 279 km





Solar eclipse

taken with a solarmax 90mm and ZWO174 astro camera. about 1000 frames, top 30% frames stacked

Best Lunar 2017 | Lefty Curve Creator

Was any post-processing done to this?


Yes, quite a bit, firstly the actual picture only captures about 0.012% of the visual light (Ha wavelength) so there is no color. Secondly it is a mosaic of the sharpest part of the 300 sharpest frames. then you sharpen that further and bring out contrasts using a special program. When that is done you bring out the colors using photoshop.


Posted by u/htmanelski

A Dust Devil on Mars

This image of a dust devil in Amazonis Planitia (35.824° N 207.485° E, a few hundred km east of SpaceX’s proposed Mars landing sites) was taken on February 16th, 2012 by HiRISE. Amazonis Planitia is a large flat region in the northern lowlands which give rise for relatively high wind speeds during some parts of the year. Dr. Paul Geissler wrote about this image: “The delicate arc in the plume was produced by a westerly breeze at about a 250-meter height that blew the top of the plume towards the east. The westerly winds and the draw of warmth to the south combine to guide dust devils along southeast trending paths, as indicated by the tracks of many previous dust-devils.”

Everyday I post an image like this in r/Areology, check out that subreddit if you like this kind of stuff!

The width of this image is about 1km and the diameter of the dust devil is about 30 meters.

Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Geohack link:


Photo by u/Zerotwo_is_wife

Jupiter with Callisto and Ganymede WITH ITS SHADOW

As requested on my other post people wanted to see a unedited one so here it is!!

Any feedback is welcome I used my Orion sky quest 8in Dobsonian Telescopes with a 10mm and 2x Barlow

My camera is a Sony a5000

So first I took a 0:24 second video

Then I put it into the program called PIPP that turned it into a AVI file

Then I took the AVI file in AutoStakkert and had it stack it altogether

Then did some fine tuning in registacks

Thank you!!


Nice capture.

If you have capture it at the time and date indicated on the image, then the moon on the lower left corner is not Callisto but Io.



perfect timing

Posted by u/MoniMokshith

Perfectly Timed Photo Frames a Solar Eclipse Around a Man Leading a Camel in the Desert by Joshua Cripps



Full view of Jupiter in infrared light

Posted by u/j3ffr33d0m

Full view of Jupiter in infrared light


Jupiter’s heat is largely internally generated — not from the sun. So the bands you’re seeing is where heat is rising from the interior, while the cold bands have cooled due to losing heat to space (in the form of infrared).

There is some sunlight related heating, but Jupiter emits twice as much as it gets from the sun. There are some that propose that Jupiter has some limited amounts of fusion going on in the interior to sustain this, but it could also just be latent heat of formation or due to mineral phase changes (crystallization processes).


mars sky

Posted by u/ShawnGreyling

Image taken by SkyCam on sol 99. Guessing they are stars?

paulhammond5155, Top contributor

The SkyCam is a modified (flight-spare) HazCam from Curiosity Rover. Therefore, I think it would be surprising if any stars were visible in this frame. To resolve stars the exposure duration would need to be fairly long, if that was the case we would see all the bright spots tracking around the sky as Mars rotated (the camera is fixed to the deck and does not move).

I believe it might be able to resolve the Martian moons, possibly some of the brighter planets and maybe fortuitously capture an incoming meteorite. Most of what we are seeing is probably noise and cosmic ray hits.

I’d really like these to be stars and galaxies as one comment mentioned, but to me it seems unlikely. But hey what do I know?

I’d like to be wrong in this case 🙂

EDIT: I have added the internal ring (anulus) and other optical shields that would mask areas of all exposed SkyCam images. These areas are masked to prevent stray light from entering the camera. But we can see in the image shared that there are star-like features etc where there should be none. Look closely at the original image and we can make out the masked areas of the lens (they’re a little darker. Each SkyCam image also captures part of the mast, again that should mask light entering the camera from stars etc LINK


KAGUYA taking “Full Earth-rise” by HDTV (Apr. 5, 2008)

JAXA | 宇宙航空研究開発機構
Mar 23, 2009

KAGUYA (SELENE) taking “Full Earth-rise” by HDTV on Apr. 5, 2008. Aspect ratio 16:9 and HD quality in English narration. (C)JAXA/NHK




Photojournal: PIA17306
Source: Lawrence Sromovsky, University of Wisconsin-Madison/W.W. Keck Observatory
Published: July 11, 2004
An infrared composite image of the two hemispheres of Uranus obtained with Keck Telescope adaptive optics. The component colors of blue, green, and red were obtained from images made at near infrared wavelengths of 1.26, 1.62, and 2.1 microns respectively. The images were obtained on July 11 and 12, 2004. The North pole is at 4 o’clock.


The two sides of the planet Uranus, as viewed in this composite image, by the Keck Telescope at near infrared wavelengths. These new images of the seventh planet from the sun promise to help scientists unravel the mysteries of the weather on Uranus.
Used with permission by: UW-Madison University Communications 608/262-0067
Photo by: courtesy Lawrence Sromovsky/UW-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center.
Date: 10/04 File#: scan provided

Link to source:

Simply spectacular.


A North Polar Crater

r/Areology – Posted by u/htmanelski

“A North Polar Crater”

htmanelski, m o d

This image of a crater near the North pole (84.335° N, 120.393° E) was taken by HiRISE on August 20th, 2008. What you see here is mostly dry ice (solid CO2) which accumulates at the poles seasonally. This was taken in northern summer, when the seasonal CO2 ice cap is thinning, revealing beautiful red material on this small crater’s slopes.

The width of this image is about 1 km.

Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Geohack link:

This looks so cool. And intriguing!


The Lagoon and Trifid Nebulae

Posted to r/Astronomy by u/the_astro_enthusiast

The Lagoon and Trifid Nebulae


You can view a higher-quality image here:


  • Nikon D90
  • Sky-Watcher Star Adventurer
  • Star Adventurer tripod
  • Sigma 300mm prime lens
  • Bahintov Mask
  • Intervalometer
  • Laptop
  • Stellarium
  • Sharpcap
  • All Sky Plate Solver


  • 174 x 2′ exposures (total just under 6 hours)
  • 30 Darks
  • 140 Bias
  • 20 Flat


  • Stacked manually in pixinsight
  • Crop to get rid of artifacts
  • DBE
  • Deconvolution
  • Histogram strech
  • MLT for denoise
  • ArcsinH strech
  • Starnet
  • Some curves transformation
  • Added stars back

Follow my blog and Instagram for more photos!




The associated Nasa article clarifies this and adds a few verbal precautions

This illustration shows Jezero Crater — the landing site of the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover — as it may have looked billions of years go on Mars, when it was a lake. An inlet and outlet are also visible on either side of the lake.


A deep image of Leo triplet

Posted by u/mrdeepsky01 to r/Astronomy, 1 hour ago

A deep image of Leo triplet in just 100mins OC/ NGC 3628 Shows Tidal tail feature


First ever ‘all-sky’ colour image acquired on Mars.

Posted by u/paulhammond5155, 2 hours ago, to r/PerseveranceRover

First ever ‘all-sky’ colour image acquired on Mars. 5 Navcam images from Sol 73. Assembled by Damia Bouic into this hemispherical view. Note layers of thin clouds.


They certainly do look like meteors, or, more likely, debris, due to the low speed, but, I don’t know what to make of the “pause” at the end. If that’s what it is.




Posted by u/Astronophilos, 10 hours ago

I’ve been working one week to make this ultra high-definition 80 MPx picture of the Moon that required 85,000 snapshots from two nights of observation (zoom in!)

Fabulous! Really! The pic is huge and is, indeed, great for zooming in.


Watch Stars Orbit Milky Way’s Black Hole in Nearly 20-Year Time-Lapse

Jul 31, 2018

The NACO instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope was used to create this time-lapse video of stars orbiting the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole over the course of nearly 20 years. — Star Zooms Past Monster Black Hole, Confirms Relativity:…

Credit: ESO/MPE

HERE’S AN ARTICLE that goes into a lot more detail about what we see in the video, and relativity.

From the link.

For the first time ever, researchers have watched a star race past the supermassive black hole at the heart of the Milky Way, verifying that its motion showed the effects of general relativity, as predicted by Albert Einstein.
The stars of the Milky Way orbit a gargantuan black hole called Sagittarius A*, which is generally quiet as viewed from Earth, except for ripping apart the occasional object that ventures too close. The black hole’s mass is 4 million times that of the sun, and it exhibits our galaxy’s strongest gravitational field, making it — and a small group of stars orbiting it at high speed — a perfect proving ground for the extreme effects predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity.

This wont be news to some as its 3 years old. But what great video, 20 year timelapse…

Sarcastic? Me? Never!!!
Member – Registered: 2/21/2011 – Location: Moved to Dublin – Mood: Moody – Member is offline.

posted on Apr, 27 2021 @ 02:34 PM

This is just excellent!


saturn rings


Posted by
6 hours ago

Saturn’s Rings

6 hours ago

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft captured this view of the Janus 2:1 spiral density wave in Saturn’s rings on June 4, 2017.

Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

More info:

That is spectacular. Seriously. Looks like window blinds. Or a record!

The farther out we go, the weirder it gets.

ETA: Is it me? It looks like it’s moving. A commenter said that as well. Weird.


First Aerial Color Image of Mars


Posted by
3 hours ago

First Aerial Color Image of Mars

6 hours ago

This is the first color image of the Martian surface taken by an aerial vehicle while it was aloft. The Ingenuity Mars Helicopter captured it with its color camera during its second successful flight test on April 22, 2021. At the time this image, Ingenuity was 17 feet (5.2 meters) above the surface and pitching (moving the camera’s field of view upward) so the helicopter could begin its 7-foot (2-meter) translation to the west – away from the rover. The image, as well as the inset showing a closeup of a portion of the tracks the Perseverance Mars rover and Mars surface features, demonstrates the utility of scouting Martian terrain from an aerial perspective.

The winding parallel discolorations in the surface reveal the tread of the six-wheeled rover. Perseverance itself is located top center, just out frame. “Wright Brothers Field” is in the vicinity of the helicopter’s shadow, bottom center, with the actual point of takeoff of the helicopter just below the image. A portion of the landing pads on two of the helicopter’s four landing legs can be seen in on the left and right sides of the image, and a small portion of the horizon can be seen at the upper right and left corners.

Mounted in the helicopter’s fuselage and pointed approximately 22 degree below the horizon, Ingenuity’s high-resolution color camera contains a 4208-by-3120-pixel sensor.

The Ingenuity Mars Helicopter was built by JPL, which also manages this technology demonstration project for NASA Headquarters. It is supported by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, and Space Technology Mission Directorate. NASA’s Ames Research Center and Langley Research Center provided significant flight performance analysis and technical assistance during Ingenuity’s development. AeroVironment Inc., Qualcomm, Snapdragon, and SolAero also provided design assistance and major vehicle components. The Mars Helicopter Delivery System was designed and manufactured by Lockheed Space Systems, Denver.

Credit NASA/JPL-Caltech


ETA: Hey, here’s the altimeter graph from the first flight:

ginny altitude


Comparison between Ingenuity’s first and second flight


Posted by
7 hours ago

Comparison between Ingenuity’s first and second flight


Sombrero Galaxy M104, 66 hour exposure.


Posted by
3 hours ago

My 66 hour exposure of the Sombrero Galaxy M104



Ingenuity completed second successful flight!


Posted by
2 hours ago

Ingenuity completed second successful flight!


Perseverance view of ingenuity flying from r/PerseveranceRover


Posted by
4 hours ago

Perseverance view of Ingenuity flying



Posted by
3 hours ago

NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter Succeeds in Historic First Flight…


On this day Ingenuity became the first helicopter to fly on a different planet.


Posted by
3 hours ago

On this day. Ingenuity became the first helicopter to fly on a different planet.

Hip, Hip, Hooray! Oh, YAY! We are on our way!


Congratulations ingenuity


Posted by
2 hours ago

Congratulations Ingenuity

Ginny Flies!

I am so happy to see this, the first controlled flight on another planet. Stunningly cool!



Posted by
u/paulhammond5155, Top contributor
3 hours ago

NASA to Attempt First Controlled Flight on Mars As Soon As Monday…


Afternoon on Mars. Moon Phobos peeking over the northern limb of Mount Sharp


Posted by
42 minutes ago

Afternoon on Mars. Moon Phobos peeking over the northern limb of Mount Sharp


Needle Galaxy (NGC 4565)


Posted by
21 hours ago

Needle Galaxy (NGC 4565) An edge-on galaxy that contains an estimated 1 trillion stars…

What a view, eh?


Sol 53: Tight view on rocks immediately in front of Perseverance


Posted by
1 hour ago

Sol 53: Tight view on rocks immediately in front of Perseverance

1 hour ago

This mosaic consists of 10 images taken earlier today by the left Mastcam-Z camera and focuses on a few of the rocks immediately in front of Perseverance in the area accessible to its robotic arm. The amount of detail visible in the rocks is pretty amazing to look at! For context, check out yesterday’s mosaic image showing the wider area in front of the rover:

As a bonus, see if you can find the area of this SuperCam image taken a few hours beforehand! Full disclosure, I have not found it nor do I have any idea if it the area of this image actually appears in the mosaic:

Mars Perseverance Sol 53: Left Mastcam-Z Camera

NASA’s Mars Perseverance rover acquired this image mosaic using its Left Mastcam-Z camera. Mastcam-Z is a pair of cameras located high on the rover’s mast.

This image mosaic was acquired on Apr. 14, 2021 (Sol 53) around the local mean solar time of 14:00.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU